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The History of the
Justice
League

of America

by Michael Hutchison
Art by Bill Wiist, Melissa Wilson, Rick Blackwell
and Jon Karl Franklin Haynes

The leader of the planet Appellax had died, and seven contenders for the throne arose. As was their tradition, they would adopt battleforms and the successor would be chosen by combat. To avoid damaging their own planet, the government chose Earth as the battleground and launched the combatants as seedlings encased in meteorites.

On Earth, five of the warriors were defeated in one-to-one combat with Flash II (Barry Allen), Green Lantern II (Hal Jordan), J'onn J'onzz (in his first public appearance), Aquaman and Black Canary II (Dinah Laurel Lance, who had just adopted her mother's costumed identity). In Florida, the five heroes encountered the sixth Appellaxian and managed to defeat him by combining their abilities. Racing to the Antarctic, they found that Superman had already defeated the last creature and left the scene before they could get his attention.

A big fan of the Justice Society that the Golden Age Flash (Jay Garrick) had belonged to, Batman watches over HIS city! Flash recommended they join together to form a modern version of the team, substituting the snappier "League" for "Society." Announcing the team's formation at a press conference, Black Canary saddled the "of America" on their name, despite the more global outlook of most other members. The Justice League of America set up headquarters in a Rhode Island cave (the Secret Sanctuary) with equipment financed by an unknown backer (as-yet-unrevealed, but most likely Bruce Wayne; Batman wanted to keep the team away from the JSA's old home base of Gotham City).

Each member of the JLA saw it as a release from the pressures of being a lone superhero. Both J'onn J'onzz and Aquaman (who was just forming ties to surface-dwellers) began to feel, through the team, a connection and closeness that had been missing from their lives. The unlikely team of Flash (a quiet Missouri scientist) and Green Lantern (a hotshot California test pilot) became good friends. Black Canary, as the only woman and the least superpowered of the team, convinced the guys on the team to treat her as an equal…and eventually, she came to feel the same kinship her mother had felt in the JSA.

J'onn J'onzz believed that he was a great Martian warrior and leader, but this was actually a fake reality built in his mind by Saul Erdel, the scientist who first brought him to Earth. In truth, he'd been a man of peace, a poet and a singer, who had watched his wife, his daughter, his entire planet die from a vicious plague. That, coupled with the shock of the matter transference, had driven the Martian into a nervous breakdown. Erdel, forming a mental link with the telepathic Martian, had given J'onn this false memory of Mars as a means of restoring his sanity. J'onn lived on Earth in solitude for decades, but the loss of his family still pained his subconscious. The JLA, unbeknownst to him, became a pseudo-family and eased his loss; in return, J'onn became one of the most stalwart members of the group, never taking more than a brief leave of absence in its decade-long history. [Editor's Note: Originally, the Martian Manhunter joined his people on "New Mars" for almost 150 issues, but the revision of Martian history as well as the absence of Superman in post-Crisis continuity gives every indication that J'onn never left.]

Although there were a few existing teams of adventurers (including the Metal Men and the Doom Patrol), the Justice League was the first high-publicity superteam and quickly became the cornerstone team of superheroes on the planet.

The JLA had an exciting first year. Lucas "Snapper" Carr was employed as a technician and soon became a trusted chronicler of their adventures. The team dealt with numerous bizarre enemies, including Starro The Conqueror, Despero, Kanjar Ro, The Lord of Time, Amos Fortune, The Royal Flush Gang, Professor Ivo and Amazo…and attacks by a group named Locus which sought to stop the team's road to greatness.
J'onn and Hawky

New members Green Arrow (Oliver Queen) and Atom (Ray Palmer) joined in quick succession, and Batman finally joined in that first year, too. Superman was invited to join but didn't feel that he had the time to spare for membership; as a reserve member, Superman assisted them in many cases over the years.

The original Justice Society of America came out of decades of retirement to team up with this new JLA. The two groups began to have regular gatherings and teamed to fight such enemies as the Crime Syndicate and the Red Tornado (an android which rebelled against its creator, Thomas Oscar Morrow, and joined the Justice Society). Hawkman (Carter Hall) joined the JLA as a liason between the two teams. It is presumed that his wife Hawkgirl (Shayera Hall), who changed her name to Hawkwoman now that she was a senior citizen, joined at some time later.
Metamorpho (Rex Mason), the element man, was invited to join the JLA but refused, as he was only interested in regaining his human form. Adam Strange became involved with the team on several cases. Both were added to the JLA reserve list.

Several of the JLA members had assisted Zatanna in her search for her missing father. At her summons, those team members and Elongated Man (Ralph Dibny, one of Flash's best friends) gathered at the Sanctuary to assist her in finally releasing Giovanni Zatara from the dimension in which he'd been trapped for decades. This one case gave the JLAers exposure to two future members.
GL/GA/BC

Under the influence of the Joker, Snapper Carr betrayed the team and exposed the location of their headquarters. Abandoning their Secret Sanctuary, the JLA used cutting-edge technology (donated by WayneTech, S.T.A.R. Labs and others) as well as alien technology confiscated on their adventures to establish the JLA Satellite, which floated in geosynchronous orbit 22,300 miles above Metropolis. Transporter tubes in every major city and relay satellites allowed the League to now be on any part of the planet within moments. [Editor's Note: Pre-Crisis, this technology was Kryptonian, Martian and Thanagarian. Changes to Superman, Hawkman and J'onn J'onzz have eliminated all of these possibilities, so we have to make some assumptions.]

The team was celebrating their 100th meeting with Elongated Man, Metamorpho, Zatanna and the Justice Society when a large energy hand (commanded by the Iron Hand, an old JSA enemy) threatened to crush the planet. They learned that the only weapon capable of destroying the hand had been designed by the Seven Soldiers of Victory and used against a creature called the Nebula Man, and that the resulting explosion had killed one of them and hurled the rest through time. The JLA and JSA traveled through time to retrieve Crimson Avenger, Shining Knight, Star-Spangled Kid, Stripesy, Vigilante and Stuff, discovering that the dead Soldier was Wing (Crimson Avenger's aide). [Editor's Note: Originally, the Earth-2 Green Arrow and Speedy were the last two members. It has since been ret-conned that the last two soldiers were Stuff and Wing. Unfortunately, this ruins the surprise of Wing being an unofficial 8th soldier in the original story.] The weapon was constructed, and one of the heroes had to sacrifice his or her life to deliver the lightning rod-like object into the cosmic hand. The Red Tornado stole away with the rod while the others were debating and was destroyed in the explosion.

Having had another look at Elongated Man in action, the JLA promptly inducted him into the JLA (Barry Allen had been pushing his membership for quite a while, but other members had concerns about Ralph Dibny's celebrity status and public identity). This was immediately followed by the membership of Red Tornado (who had been rebuilt by T.O. Morrow). Around this same time, the Phantom Stranger assisted the JLA on a mission and became a reserve member.

The JLA now had a sizable membership capable of meeting and beating almost any menace. Over the next two years, the team defended Earth against the Manhunters, the Construct, several villain teams, numerous alien invasions and cosmic menaces. Zatanna joined the team, greatly increasing their ability to tackle magical enemies. This was followed by Firestorm, the Nuclear Man (a composite being: Ron Raymond and Professor Martin Stein), one of their most powerful members ever..

Green Arrow nominated Black Lightning (Jefferson Pierce) for JLA membership. Although many members had heard good things about him, they hadn't seen him in action and worried that Oliver Queen was only nominating him due to concerns that the JLA consisted mostly of Anglo-Saxons. The JLA put the matter to rest by challenging Black Lightning disguised as supervillains and monsters. Black Lightning emerged victorious from every challenge, and he impressed them with his sense of honor as well. However, when the JLA revealed their disguise and offered him membership, they discovered that he was never interested in joining a group that would take him away from protecting Suicide Slum. His refusal struck a chord with Green Arrow, who quit soon after for similar reasons.

The Appellaxians returned when secret mental commands urged the original JLAers and Superman to retrieve the buried meteorites and awaken the back-up seeds contained within. This adventure pitted Leaguer against Leaguer; it was only when released from the spells that the unified team was able to destroy the Appellaxians. Green Arrow rejoined the team after this case.

The Royal Flush Gang returned, secretly commanded by Hector Hammond, and came close to killing the entire JLA…were it not for the intervention of the ectoplasmic form of Martin Stein. The JLA also faced a man named Paragon, able to simulate and amplify the powers of anyone within his sphere of influence, who attempted to destroy the "lesser peoples" of the Earth.

Batman, wanting to work on more down-to-Earth cases and annoyed when the JLA wouldn't interfere in the internal affairs of a foreign nation, quit the JLA to found the Outsiders.

More and more, members were ignoring the summons of their JLA communicators due to their private lives and their other superhero activities. Although this had been a minor problem for the previous year, it became a major point when the Earth was almost invaded due to its lack of a designated defense team.

A race of aliens, similar in appearance to J'onn J'onzz's adopted body shape, announced their plans to take over the Earth…and they wrecked the JLA satellite as an opening offensive. The JLA was underpowered at this time; Flash was imprisoned for killing the Reverse-Flash, Green Lantern was serving a year-long exile from Earth and Atom had taken a leave of absence (see this month's DCU 101). Many of Earth's other heroes were unavailable due to private cases which had drawn them off-planet, into other dimensions or otherwise kept them occupied.

J'onn, unaware that his true shape was that of a lizard-like creature and that his race had died out millenia before, believed the invaders were his fellow Martians and was initially confused as to his allegiance. Upon discovering that this race was not his, he challenged the alien leader and defeated him in battle…and the invaders withdrew. [Editor's Note: Once again, we must infer the post-Crisis version of this case, as no writer has revisited the event to give us a canonical version.]

Aquaman feared that the JLA could no longer meet the needs of Earth as the UN-sanctioned superteam and dissolved the JLA at a meeting of the UN. Shocked, the other JLA members urged Aquaman to reverse his decision, but Aquaman insisted that any membership with the JLA be a full-time commitment. The only members able to meet such a requirement were Zatanna, J'onn J'onzz and Elongated Man. Ralph Dibny agreed with the stipulation that his wife, Sue, be allowed to live with him at their new headquarters, as the couple did not have a place of residence.

This new JLA of four was quickly joined by the animal-powered Vixen (supermodel Mari McCabe) and Steel (Hank Heywood III, the grandson of Commander Steel) who offered his grandfather's Detroit bunker as a headquarters if they let him join. Two metahumans in the Detroit neighborhood, Vibe (Paco Ramone) and Gypsy (Cindy Reynolds), soon joined the team. This incarnation of the JLA was committed and serious but unable to meet the lofty appellation of the "World's Greatest Heroes." However, they did manage to repel such menaces as a reactivated Amazo and a powerful new version of Despero.

The team was evicted from their bunker by Heywood Industries and moved back into the Secret Sanctuary, where they awoke a potato-like creature (nicknamed Junior by Gypsy). Junior drained the life energy of the JLA; Sue Dibny managed to signal the reserve JLA members before succombing to the creature's energy drain. The original JLA and Superman were able to revive the JLA and defeat Junior, and Batman rejoined the team in an attempt to train the younger members.

Due to G. Gordon Godfrey's rabble-rousing, the US government passed a bill banning superheroes and the JLA was officially dissolved. At the same time, replicas of Professor Ivo were sent to kill the new recruits of the JLA. They succeeded in killing Vibe and Steel. Gypsy rejoined her parents, and Vixen and J'onn J'onzz tracked the androids to their lair where she found that the mastermind was not Ivo but one of his replicants who believed he was the original.

J'onn closed the files on the organization known as the Justice League of America.

JLI

Once Darkseid's plans to persecute Earth's superheroes had failed, the heroes who had banded together to fight Godfrey decided to form a new Justice League (dropping the "of America"). This team consisted of Batman, Black Canary II, J'onn J'onzz, Captain Marvel (Billy Batson), Blue Beetle II (Ted Kord), Mr. Miracle (Scott Free), Guy Gardner and Doctor Fate (Kent Nelson). Mr. Miracle's aide Oberon served the team as support personnel.

Billionaire manipulator Maxwell Lord IV, who was himself being manipulated by an artificial intelligence (later revealed to be the Kilg%re, a computerized menace), decided to seize the reins of the Justice League and make them an international superteam to be reckoned with. He began by giving Dr. Light II (Kimiyo Hoshi) and Booster Gold (Michael Jon Carter) JL signal devices and telling them that they were members of the team. Then Lord arranged for incidents to make them look good to the actual team. The Justice League allowed Booster Gold to stay on.

The Kilg%re seized control of an orbiting space weapon and trained it on Earth, creating an incident which brought the new League international acclaim, resulting in the United Nations passing a resolution to make the Justice League a global team. This new Justice League International had embassies in New York, Moscow, London, Paris, Kooeykooeykooey and many other locations around the world. As the first step towards representing the nations of the world, Captain Atom (Nathaniel Adam) and Rocket Red (the first a Manhunter infiltrator, the second Dmitri Pushkin) joined the team.

Max's control of the team at the whims of the Kilg%re was soon discovered. However, the contrite Maxwell Lord was retained as the head of the JLI organization.

The JLI soon gained two new members, Ice Maiden II (Tora Olafsdotter) and Green Flame (Beatriz de Costa), who changed their names to Fire and Ice. They were originally members of the Global Guardians, which was disbanded upon the creation of the JLI. Ice, a shy, gentle woman, began a romance with the loutish Guy Gardner, as she believed that there was a good man inside him.

This version of the JLA was incredibly popular, despite the relative obscurity of the individual members. The quick-witted Blue Beetle and the amiable Booster Gold became best friends; however, their antics as members were a detriment to their reputations as serious superheroes and sometimes damaged the image of the League. Guy Gardner's hot-headedness required even more spin-doctoring by Max Lord.

The Invasion of Earth by the Alien Alliance lead to a massive recruitment drive to beef up the strength of the JLI, and a new branch based in Paris (later, London) nicknamed Justice League Europe was created. Consequently, the American branch was nicknamed Justice League America.

The JLE consisted of Flash III (Wally West), Elongated Man, Power Girl (Karen "Kara" Starr), Rocket Red #4 (Dmitri), Metamorpho, Animal Man and team leader Captain Atom. Wonder Woman considered joining the team but never became a full member. The organization was joined by Crimson Fox (twins Vivian and Constance D'Aramis) and later Silver Sorceress and Bluejay (true names unknown) of the other-worldly superteam The Justifiers. The biggest enemies of the JLE were the Extremists, a villain team from The Justifiers' homeworld.

The JLA added new members, too, including Huntress, Orion, Lightray and General Glory. Big Barda assisted the team on several occasions, and ex-Green Lantern Kilowog joined as a technical supervisor. Booster Gold, meanwhile, quit to begin his own corporate-funded team, the Conglomerate.

The two teams were often troubled by the renegade terrorist nation of Bialya, which was led at first by Rumaan Harjavti and then later by his consort, the "Queen Bee." The various plots included duping the Justifiers into the defense of Bialya, brainwashing Booster and Beetle to turn them into remote-activated killers, and taking control of the reactivated Global Guardians. This culminated in the attempted assassination of Maxwell Lord. While Max was recovering, his U.N.-appointed replacement, Ambassador Heimlich, maneuvered the team into a position of vulnerability through firings and demoralizing decisions. Ultimately, the JLI was disbanded by the U.N., but the heroes stayed together.

The Justice League defeated the Queen Bee and then survived successive attacks by Lobo, Despero…and Dreamslayer of the Extremists. Dreamslayer was ultimately destroyed by the fatally wounded Silver Sorceress (Sadly, Dreamslayer survived the Sorceress' last act).

Maxwell Lord attempted to bring the teams back together, but was unable to keep the teams together and they all went their separate ways. The Martian Manhunter took a leave of absence to explore his true identity. However, many of the other heroes were reunited during a terrorist attack by the Royal Flush Gang and the JLA and JLE teams were reactivated.
Superman

The new JLA consisted of Superman, Fire, Ice, Guy Gardner, Booster Gold, Blue Beetle, the reformed villainess Maxima and the mysterious unknown Bloodwynd…and they gained a new headquarters, a tower behind the U.N. Following Superman's death at the hands of Doomsday, and the wounding of Booster, Beetle and Fire, the JLA added Wonder Woman, The Ray (Raymond Terrill), Agent Liberty (Benjamin Lockwood) and Black Condor (the latter two left shortly after joining). It was also discovered that, while Bloodwynd did indeed exist, the one in the JLA was actually J'onn J'onzz.

Meanwhile, the JLE was administrated by Sue Dibny and they moved into "Castle JLE" on the Thames in London. Its membership included Elongated Man, Power Girl, Dr. Light II (the three preceding heroes adopting new costumes), Flash, Crimson Fox, Tasmanian Devil and Aquaman. Their membership soon grew to include Green Lantern II, Metamorpho and a young heroine code-named Maya. Soon afterwards, the team switched its name to Justice League International. The JLI encountered such strange characters as Erewhon, Duke Donald (a ghost inhabiting a suit of armor) and Godfrey, a giant who could do anything.

Another Justice League team, Justice League Task Force, was assembled by the U.N. and led by J'onn J'onzz and Gypsy. The JLTF hand-picked superheroes for specific missions.

All three teams combined to repel the Overmaster and his Cadre on the top of Mt. Everest (Supposedly Mt. Everest, yet none of them seemed to require warm clothes or oxygen, but that's just an observation.), and the Overmaster killed Ice. The death of Ice ended the Booster-Beetle-Guy Gardner era of the League. Guy Gardner became a loner, and Booster and Beetle left to form their own team with Captain Atom. This team thought of themselves as the "true" Justice League but never adopted a name.

Following the temporal event known as Zero Hour, in which Parallax (the now-villainous Green Lantern II) and Monarch/Extant (the now-villainous Hawk) tried to massively re-write history, the Justice League underwent one more change. With many of the JLI's most representative characters gone, the organization was split into several teams, each with a different agenda.

JLI was no more. A few of its members (such as Metamorpho, Flash and Crimson Fox) joined the JLA.

The JLA, led by Wonder Woman, now became a universal organization. The team was stationed in the Overmaster's abandoned ship, which orbited the Earth in a low orbit. The team's lineup included Hawkman (number uncertain, but this was the Thanagarian/Native American/Hawk Avatar Katar Hol which had also absorbed all other incarnations of the Hawk Avatar including the previous Hawkman and Hawkwoman), Fire, Ice Maiden I (Sigrid Nansen, who had resurfaced now that her successor, Tora, had been killed), Nuklon (Albert ), Obsidian (Todd James Rice), Metamorpho, Flash III, Blue Devil (stuntman Dan Cassidy), Wonder Woman II (Artemis) and many other heroes who stopped by but may not have been active members, such as Guy Gardner (now in his Warrior phase, in which he could form any weapon he could imagine), El Diablo II (Rafael Sandoval, although not in his normal superhero guise; this El Diablo was demon-possessed and bore little resemblence to the superhero who had once been offered membership) and Power Girl (who gave birth to a magical child which grew to adulthood instantly and fought a demon which may have been its father in a rather confusing story that defies chronicling). Adding to this mish-mash membership was Wonder woman's declaration that any active superhero could be a member of the JLA.

The "Extreme Justice" team, albeit nameless, was composed of Blue Beetle, Booster Gold, Amazing Man II, Maxima, Captain Atom…and later, Firestorm (now composed only of Ron Raymond) and Zan and Jayna (alien twins). Their adventures included a confrontation with a new Monarch; it was revealed that this Monarch was, in fact, the true Nathaniel Adam, and Captain Atom was only a living metal copy of Adam.

The Justice League Task Force, still led by Martian Manhunter, was a sort of training ground for the JLA's younger recruits. The team's membership now included Ray, Triumph (a time-tossed character who had actually begun forming the JLA a decade earlier before disappearing into a rip in time and eliminating himself from history), Gypsy, L-Ron (an old robot assistant of the JLA whose personality now inhabited the body of Despero), Damage and Mystek (not much is known of Mystek). This team often butted heads with the amoral immortal Vandal Savage.

In the waning days of the Justice League International organizations, two people made bad decisions which have affected the League.

Maxwell Lord, dying of a terminal illness, sold his soul to the Kilg%re and had his mental faculties transferred into the robotic body of Extremist Lord Havok. As Lord Havok, he attempted to kill the JLA; however, none of them know that he was once their friend and leader. Little of this mystery has been explained, and it is unclear if the mind of Lord Havok bears any traces of Maxwell Lord's conscousness or if the Kilg%re is in control, using the information of Lord's brain.

Triumph was given a candle by the demonic Neron which, in exchange for his soul, would give him back the decade which he had lost. Triumph refused to light the candle, but it was mistakenly lit by Gypsy and The Ray. Subsequently, time has been rewritten so that Triumph existed for the past 10 years, but it is not clear if he ever played a part in the Justice League or if his initial mission with the 5 founding superheroes affected the history of the JLA. What is clear is that he is held in very low esteem today (after all, he's still a jerk) and that he retains his memories of his time in the Justice League Task Force, fondly wishing that the candle hadn't been lit.

JLA!

Following this period in which the proud name of the Justice League languished, events lead to the creation of a new, revitalized Justice League of America (the "of America" appellation apparently being added for nostalgia's sake, although clearly no longer applicable).

Dr. Destiny, an old dream-powered enemy of the JLA, managed to create a new reality in which most people on Earth developed superpowers, while the superheroes lived normal lives. Clark Kent and Wally West began remembering their old lives as superheroes and sought out others (Bruce Wayne and Green Lantern Kyle Rayner, respectively) to jog their memories. His memories restored, Batman used his supercomputer to track down all other available superheroes…and comes up with only two. [Editor's Smug Derisive Note: Oddly, this computer was able to find Wonder Woman and Aquaman in civilian identities that they have never used (and despite the fact that neither has a "power signature", really, since they don't have metagenes), but was unable to find such people as Jack Knight (Starman), Guy Gardner and Ralph Dibny despite the fact that Bruce Wayne knows their real names and all three would be listed in the phone book. Check out JLA: Midsummer's Nightmare #2 and there are all three characters, plain as day, as well as Billy Batson who has a secret identity. Come to think of it, Bruce doesn't even put Wally West on that list! Missing the superheroes with public identities is already a logical oversight, and Mark Waid adds insult to injury by actually showing us three of them! I don't know what kind of game Waid's playing…] The six heroes reunited to find J'onn J'onzz living in a government bunker, believing he was on Mars. The seven defeated Dr. Destiny and decided to stay together as the Justice League of America.

This lead to the rather uncomfortable situation of there already being a JLA. However, the UN promptly disbanded the old team and ordered them to clear out of their satellite headquarters (curious, since the UN does not own the satellite).

At this time, Flash was investigating a strange star-shaped ship which had materialized in the middle of a building in Blue Valley. The inhabitant of the ship used star-like creatures which attached to people's faces and controlled their minds. Bizarrely, Wally West drew no connection between this and Starro, despite the fact that Starro once controlled Flash, the JLE and most of England in this exact same method. Flash became possessed, too, as he apparently was unable to use the speed of light to outrun a starfish. The rest of the new JLA team met in the satellite, where the great detectives also discussed the situation with a blinding disregard for it having anything to do with a five-limbed conqueror from outer space which used starfish with red eyes in the center to control people which the JLA had fought on numerous previous occasions. The Spectre (Jim Corrigan) then arrived and showed them what would happen if this new JLA intervened; apparently, they would blunder into the spaceship and be taken over in moments, making no attempt to use such things as superspeed, heat vision, telekinesis, superbreath, Martian vision, force field bubbles or any of 100 different ways that they might defend themselves, including possibly putting their hands over their faces. Then the Spectre allows them to defeat the creature if they agree to do it without superpowers, and then he removes their superpowers…although why he couldn't or wouldn't do this if they fell under the conqueror's thrall, as well as why he doesn't use his own power to stop a creature from conquering the entire universe, isn't explained. The JLA uses their normal-powered bodies as fodder to allow Batman to sneak in and defeat the critter by reducing the temperature…and, despite the fact that he saw the star's surviving in the cold of space in the vision shown to him by the Spectre, this works. [Editor's Apology Note: I'm sorry to marr this otherwise textbook chronicling with this biased little critique, but it's impossible to summarize the story without noticing the voluminous logical flaws which any moron and possibly even comic book editors should have noticed.] It should be noted that the creature behind this was not Starro but was perhaps of a similar species, the difference being that this critter has webbing between its limbs and Starro doesn't.

A group called the Hyperclan arrived on Earth and their efforts to eliminate supercriminals and terraform the deserts made them wildly popular. However, the JLA satellite was attacked by unknown assailants as Metamorpho's team was onboard picking up their possessions; Metamorpho formed an escape pod and saved the rest of the ex-Leaguers at the cost of his own life. Suspicious, the JLA began investigating the Hyperclan and eventually discovered that they were White Martians, a violent, malicious offshoot of J'onn's Green Martian race which had been exiled to a limbo dimension eons before. Oddly, although J'onn's weakness to fire had been analyzed as a psychosomatic trauma (brought on by watching his wife being consumed in the mass-pyres on his homeworld) as opposed to an actual weakness, the White Martians are also fearful of fire. It is theorized that the White Martians (possibly all Martians) may have a cultural fear of the Martian fire god H'Ronmeer, which would explain why a creature with the speed of the Flash could develop brain-numbing paralysis at the sight of a teensy flame instead of just running away. Tthe White Martians were mentally reprogrammed to believe they were humans, and at least one appears to be working as a fireman with no ill effects, thus bolstering the theory that it is a fear of fire as opposed to an actual vulnerability.

Following Metamorpho's funeral, the League constructed a massive headquarters on the lunar surface: the JLA Watchtower. Once this was done, the JLA had a membership drive and discovered the new heroine Tomorrow Woman, who was actually an android created by Professor Ivo and T.O. Morrow. Tomorrow Woman defied her creators and saved the JLA, dying in the process. This adventure was followed by attacks by the Key, a host of renegade angels, the Injustice Gang and Prometheus. Two members, Green Arrow II and Aztek, joined and quit in that time, and Wonder Woman's mortal body died.

The Justice League recently dissolved for a few months to give them time to add new members. The JLA currently consists of Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman III (Diana's mother Hippolyta), Aquaman, J'onn J'onzz the Martian Manhunter, Green Lantern Kyle Rayner, Flash, Plastic Man (Eel O'Brien), Steel (John Henry Irons), Zauriel (a guardian angel), Huntress, Big Barda, Orion and Oracle (Barbara Gordon).

If you'd like to learn more about the JLA,
the Fanzing of Congress recommends this website:
JLA Watchtower


All scanned artwork is ™ and ™ DC Comics

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