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The Hall of Justice graphic by Jeremy Greene

Barbara Gordon Timeline

by John Wells

art by Nikoru-chan

Sure to generate controversy and discord, here's my stab at a Barbara Gordon chronology:

Babs training by Nikoru-chanLike most DC characters, Barbara Gordon's history has suffered some rough blows since the post-CRISIS timeline adjustments, perhaps most significantly the revelation that she was Commissioner Gordon's adopted niece and not his biological daughter (a development that BATMAN: GOTHAM KNIGHTS # 6 may have partially undone).

The compression of DC's modern heroic age into a twelve (originally ten) year timeline has also made it difficult to properly include all of Babs' history. Of necessity, I had to make compromises, beginning with the revised origin in SECRET ORIGINS # 20. In this one, Batman had been around for 6-8 years BEFORE Barbara ever became Batgirl. The latest "official" version of the DCU timeline has her taking the mantle on the Bat in Year Four of the Dark Knight's career. To resolve this, I concluded that Babs was sixteen (not thirteen) when she moved into Jim and Barbara Gordon's household.

Barbara's juvenile crush on Batman was first explicitly recounted by Len Wein in THE UNTOLD LEGEND OF THE BATMAN # 3 and retained in SECRET ORIGINS # 20.

There are two conflicting accounts of Batgirl's origin, the original Killer Moth affair and the later LEGENDS IN THE DCU # 10-11/BATMAN CHRONICLES # 9. The former has been reaffirmed several times (most recently in SECRET FILES 2001) so the latter must be classified as a "legend." I retained the other major questionable post-Crisis story on the timeline (HACKER FILES # 5-6) but I'm not sure whether DC still regards it as canonical.

Although it isn't apparent in this particular timeline, Batgirl has actually been around since the early days of the Justice League. As the recent SILVER AGE event revealed, she was operating prior to Hawkman's induction into the JLA (pre-Crisis, it was in JLA # 31, published two years BEFORE Batgirl debuted in 'TEC # 359).

Batgirl's official discovery that Bruce Wayne is Batman is still presumed to have coincided with the mutual identity exchange between her and Dick Grayson in BATMAN FAMILY # 3. The first post-CRISIS story to establish that she knew Bruce was Batman was THE KILLING JOKE.

BATMAN & SUPERMAN: WORLD'S FINEST # 5 (not to mention LEGENDS OF THE DCU) suggested that Commissioner Gordon suspected his daughter was Batgirl almost from the start. A reading of a line in BATMAN CHRONICLES # 1 could be interpreted to mean that Gordon didn't learn Babs was Batgirl until after she was shot. It's actually pretty ambiguous and, as there's at least one post-Crisis flashback where Jim and Babs are discussing her Batgirl activities (BATMAN ANNUAL # 13), I'm treating the original 1972 unmasking scenario as canon.

I've retained Barbara's tenure in Congress, using Barbara Randall's age solution from SECRET ORIGINS # 20 along with my own suggestion that she only served part of a term.

Though I resisted referring to her as Batwoman, I also included Kathy Kane's appearance in BATMAN FAMILY # 10. Kathy's murder by the Bronze Tiger, at least, is still part of DC history.

With further ado, here are THE BATGIRL YEARS:

1945:

Following the death of Senator Harold H. Knight, several diverse forces, including Senator Thomas (Black Condor) Wright and (through intermediaries) the soon-to-be-dismanted O.S.S. lobby for Knight's daughter Sandra (a.k.a. O.S.S. operative Phantom Lady) to complete his term. Too young to hold office, Sandra is allowed to take her father's seat thanks to the Knight Dependents Bill (based in part on SECRET ORIGINS # 20).

28 YEARS AGO:

Barbara Gordon is born to Roger C. and Thelma Gordon in Ohio on September 23 (1976 SUPER DC CALENDAR).

James W. Gordon marries Barbara Kean in Chicago on October 11 (WORLD'S FINEST # 53).

23 YEARS AGO:

Young Barbara comes into possession of a letter from her mother that suggests that James W. Gordon (not Roger) is her biological father (BATMAN: GOTHAM KNIGHTS # 6).

Thelma Gordon and her sister are killed in a traffic accident (SECRET ORIGINS # 20).

12 YEARS AGO:

As a new heroic age dawns, Babs and her best friend Marcy fantasize about being female versions of Superman and Batman (SECRET ORIGINS # 20).

Roger Gordon dies (SECRET ORIGINS # 20).

11 YEARS AGO:

Taking a homemade "Batgirl" doll from Marcy as a keepsake, Babs moves to Gotham, where she is adopted by Jim and Barbara. After observing a visit between Jim and The Batman, a smitten Babs resolves to be his partner. The young woman begins training in the martial arts and quickly becomes a fixture at the Gotham Public Library, studying maps of Gotham. Forced into an early adulthood by the demands of caring for her alcoholic father and gifted with a photographic memory, sixteen-year-old Babs graduates from high school in the spring and begins classes at Gotham State University in the fall (SECRET ORIGINS # 20).

10 YEARS AGO:

Robin debuts as Batman's partner (ROBIN ANNUAL # 4).

Over the course of the year, two separate Gotham millionaires are exposed as costumed villains -- the Cavalier (DETECTIVE # 89) and Killer Moth (BATMAN # 63-64).

9 YEARS AGO:

Babs wraps up her accelerated college studies and becomes Head Reference Librarian at the Gotham Library (SECRET ORIGINS # 20).

Anxious to break her studious image, Babs designs a Batgirl costume (based on Marcy's doll) with the intention of surprising her father at the Policeman's Masquerade Ball. Instead, she stumbles onto an attack by Killer Moth on Bruce Wayne and finds a new career as a super-heroine (DETECTIVE # 359, reaffirmed in SECRET ORIGINS # 20, BATMAN: BATGIRL (1997), SECRET FILES 2001 # 1).

In Batgirl's second major case, Batman appears to take her into his confidence and unmasks as a heavily made-up Bruce Wayne. Already displaying a grudging respect for her detective abilities, the Dark Knight correctly gambles that Batgirl will conclude that he was impersonating Wayne to throw her off the trail (DETECTIVE # 363).

Batgirl and Robin team up to keep an eye on an ailing Batman (DETECTIVE # 369).

Convinced that Batgirl has romantic designs on Batman, the Catwoman makes an attack on the novice heroine (BATMAN # 197).

Batgirl and Commissioner Gordon meet Superman for the first time in a case that also involves the Thorn and Batman. The Commissioner asks the Man of Steel to "make sure nothing happens to her … She's still someone's daughter" (BATMAN & SUPERMAN: WORLD'S FINEST # 5).

At the behest of Deadman, Batgirl joins a band of heroes including archaeologist-lecturer Adam Strange, war hero Blackhawk and costumed adventurers Mento, Metamorpho and the Atomic Knight in defending the planet Rann from an attack by the Injustice League, including recent adversary Catwoman. (SILVER AGE: SHOWCASE # 1; SILVER AGE 80-PAGE GIANT # 1).

With Batman and the other male Justice Leaguers in the thrall of Zazzala the Queen Bee, Batgirl comes to the team's defense (JUSTICE LEAGUE OF AMERICA # 60).

Batgirl turned down an offer to serve as a League alternate but was named an honorary member for her efforts (AMAZING WORLD OF DC COMICS # 14).

Batgirl and Batman defeat Copperhead (BRAVE & BOLD # 78, reaffirmed in WHO'S WHO '91 # 6).

Batgirl faces The Joker for the first time (1997's BATMAN: BATGIRL).

Babs meets army vet and aspiring detective Jason Bard at the library and they quickly discover a mutual interest in crime (DETECTIVE # 392-393).

While knocking Commissioner Gordon out of a hail of bullets, Batgirl accidentally calls him "Dad" but convinces herself that the sound of the shots drowned out her voice. Gordon, who had long suspected the truth, did hear his daughter but kept his silence. (DETECTIVE # 417). "I found the mask and the cape among her things. And there was no lying to myself anymore" (BATMAN CHRONICLES # 1).

8 YEARS AGO:

When Gotham's Congressman leaves office in mid-term, James W. Gordon is nominated to run in a special election to complete his term. Her father's opposition to the nomination ("I'm just a policeman -- plain and simple!") and her own growing belief that she could do more to fight crime through legislation than fisticuffs convince Babs to run in her father's place (DETECTIVE # 422). Seemingly too young to hold political office, she "put an obscure old law to good use … Under the provisions of the Knight Dependents Bill, passed into law in 1946, my accelerated schooling and college degree allow me to register as a candidate" (SECRET ORIGINS # 20).

The issue of Commissioner Gordon's secret knowledge of his daughter's alter-ego becomes moot when she tells him herself (DETECTIVE # 422). Babs wins the special election on an anti-crime platform (DETECTIVE # 424).

Distance cools the relationship between Jason Bard and Barbara Gordon. In Washington, she develops a close friendship with Senator Robert Thomas "Bobby" Cleary (SUPERMAN # 268; BATMAN FAMILY # 3, 6, 17-18; DETECTIVE # 481-482).

While covering a White House reception, Clark Kent is abducted by the political power brokers known as M.A.Z.E. Investigating the kidnapping, Batgirl joins with Superman in exposing a branch of the spy ring (SUPERMAN # 268).

Dick Grayson spends a brief period as Barbara Gordon's aide and Batgirl and Robin team up twice in close proximity (BATMAN FAMILY # 1, 3) . In the wake of the second encounter, Robin refers to his partner as "Congresswoman," leading a momentarily thunderstruck Batgirl to respond, "You can call me Babs -- if I can call you Dick!"(BATMAN FAMILY # 3) Infatuated with Batgirl, Robin works with her regularly throughout most of the year (BATMAN FAMILY # 5, 7, 9, 11, 13-16, 20).

Alongside circus owner and former acrobat Kathy Kane, Batgirl faces an alliance of the Killer Moth and the Cavalier (BATMAN FAMILY # 10).

Jason Bard and Batgirl cross paths briefly while she is fighting Killer Moth and he is investigating Kirk Langstrom's connection to the Shotgun Sniper (BATMAN FAMILY # 15).

Batgirl finds herself the target of an occult villainess known as Madame Zodiac (BATMAN FAMILY # 17-18).

Barbara Gordon's age and liberal record work against her in a re-election bid and she loses her seat in Congress to Della Zigler (DETECTIVE # 487).

7 YEARS AGO:

Still depressed over her rejection at the polls, Babs returns to Gotham (DETECTIVE # 488). Dick Grayson, in a similar funk over his split with Lori Elton (BATMAN FAMILY # 18; DETECTIVE # 483), becomes romantically involved with Barbara in a brief affair(NIGHTWING # 43).

Babs becomes "head of the Social Services Department" at the Humanities Research and Development Center, an agency "dedicated to solving urban problems and encouraging cultural development" (DETECTIVE # 492).

Batgirl's confidence suffers another blow when she is shot and left for dead by the assassin Cormorant on orders of General Scarr. Barbara briefly considers giving up her costume but rallies and joins Batman in defeating the villains (DETECTIVE # 491-492).

On the rebound from Dick, Babs begins a tentative relationship with attorney Jim Dover (DETECTIVE # 494, 496), who helps defend her against a trumped up murder charge (# 497-499).

An inconclusive battle with the Velvet Tiger (DETECTIVE # 518-519) and a subsequent encounter with Mister Zsasz convince Batgirl that "I need … some time off" (1998's BATMAN: BATGIRL # 1). Soon after, Babs leaves the HRDC to return to her library post (BATGIRL SPECIAL # 1).

6 YEARS AGO:

When political machinations force Commissioner Gordon from office, Barbara joins Jason Bard in rooting out the corruption at City Hall (BATMAN # 346, 348-349, 352, 355).

While her father recovers from a heart attack, Barbara defends him from an assassination attempt at the hospital (DETECTIVE # 533).

During the Great Crisis, Babs briefly resumes her Batgirl persona but feels insignificant alongside Earth's metahuman community (CRISIS # 4, 5, 7, 12).

Batgirl joins Jason Todd, the new Robin, in a clash with Two-Face (BATMAN ANNUAL # 13).

Marcy visits Babs in Gotham and tells her that, having created the Batgirl doll years earlier, she immediately knew who Gotham's flame-haired heroine really was. Marcy's concern for Barbara's well-being finally convinces Babs to give up the gray tights for good. Tapping into her growing computer expertise, Batgirl concludes her final case -- the renewed presence of Cormorant -- and retires as Batgirl (BATGIRL SPECIAL # 1).

5 YEARS AGO:

Babs is left a paraplegic after being gunned down by the Joker in an assault at the Gordon home (BATMAN: THE KILLING JOKE). A doctor confirms that "there's nothing we can do" (BATMAN: GOTHAM KNIGHTS # 12).

During her rehabilitation, Babs increases her immersion in the internet and she challenges a dangerous cyber-criminal known as Interface. Seeking a means of defending herself, Barbara is directed (by a veiled Batman) to martial artist Richard Dragon. Working with Dragon, Babs begins to regain her self-confidence and adopts a new persona that is uniquely her own: Oracle (BATMAN CHRONICLES # 5).

As Earth mops up from an alien invasion, Oracle offers to serve as a resource for the Suicide Squad (SUICIDE SQUAD # 23-24).

Barbara visits Batman for the first time since her hospitilization. With Batman grieving over the death of Jason Todd and her father still struggling with his own guilt over his daughter's shooting, Barbara insists that the two men commiserate rather than deal with their problems alone (BATMAN: TURNING POINTS # 3).

4 YEARS AGO:

Amanda Waller rescues Barbara (using the alias "Amy Beddoes") from an attack by a cyber-punk known as the new Thinker (Cliff Carmichael) and invites her to take a more visible role with the Suicide Squad (SUICIDE SQUAD # 48-49).

News that the Velvet Tiger is in Washington, D.C. brings Barbara to town, where the former Congresswoman solicits the aid of the Hawk and the Dove in finally capturing her elusive foe (HAWK & DOVE # 23-24).

During a visit to Suicide Squad headquarters, Batman recognizes "Amy" as Barbara Gordon and the two play dumb on the issue of the Dark Knight's true identity for the benefit of any hidden microphones (SUICIDE SQUAD # 59).

3 YEARS AGO:

The Suicide Squad is dissolved (SUICIDE SQUAD # 66).

Jim Gordon marries Sarah Essen (LEGENDS OF THE DARK KNIGHT ANNUAL # 2).

After an illegal document is sent to Barbara's computer, her apartment is raided by federal authorities. Awakened from a sound sleep, Barbara pulls out her gun and wounds one of the agents, leading to an overnight stay in jail. Though her Oracle alter-ego remained concealed, Babs abandons her apartment, intent on leaving Gotham for parts unknown rather than remaining a target (THE HACKER FILES # 5-6). Bruce Wayne brings his resources into play, downplaying the event in the media and purging the events from public record.

Batman begins using Oracle as a key source of information (BATMAN: SWORD OF AZRAEL # 1).

When Black Canary is abducted by Symitar, the Huntress asks Oracle to connect her with Nightwing to arrange a rescue (BLACK CANARY # 10).

2 YEARS AGO:

During a temporal crisis, Barbara meets a still-active Batgirl from an alternate timeline (BATMAN # 511).

Tim (Robin) Drake contacts Oracle for the first time (DETECTIVE # 680).

With moral support from Dick Grayson, Babs falls back on her martial arts skills to defeat a stalker (SHOWCASE '94 # 12).

Barbara rejects Neron's offer to restore her mobility (UNDERWORLD UNLEASHED: PATTERNS OF FEAR # 1).

Oracle recruits Black Canary as a regular operative (BLACK CANARY/ORACLE: BIRDS OF PREY # 1) and provides her with a new costume.

Oracle refuses Batman's request for help in proving the Joker innocent of a murder (THE JOKER: DEVIL'S ADVOCATE).

The Huntress and Black Canary meet again, with the Canary reintroducing herself. Against Oracle's better judgment, the Canary joins the Huntress and Catwoman in pursuit of Braun and Lady Shiva (BIRDS OF PREY: MANHUNT # 1-4).

Oracle coordinates the world's metahuman community in their humanitarian efforts after the sun is extinguished (THE FINAL NIGHT # 2-3).

A difference of opinion breaks up Oracle and Black Canary (BIRDS OF PREY: REVOLUTION # 1) but circumstances eventually lead to a reconciliation (BIRDS OF PREY: WOLVES # 1).

Oracle's conversations with Azrael begin to take on a flirtatious tone with comments like "You have a girlfriend yet?" (AZRAEL # 32) and "When you gonna come see me?" (AZRAEL # 35).

Barbara finds herself back in the guise of Batgirl, actually an illusion cast by the Spellbinder, who'd located and kidnapped Oracle with the intent of learning Batman's secrets on behalf of Blockbuster. Oracle outfights her opponent and escapes (BIRDS OF PREY: BATGIRL # 1).

Batman announces that, as Data Central, Oracle is the newest inductee of the Justice League of America, though, of necessity, "a secret member" (JLA # 17).

Cheshire, Pistolera, Termina and Vicious join forces as the Ravens (BIRDS OF PREY: THE RAVENS # 1).

A massive earthquake rocks Gotham. Arriving at police headquarters, Barbara takes charge of the disoriented officers on the scene and begins pulling together relief efforts (BATMAN: SHADOW OF THE BAT # 73; BATMAN # 553).

A private moment between Dick Grayson and Barbara is interrupted by Robin, who meets Oracle in the flesh for the first time (NIGHTWING # 20).

At the urging of her father, Barbara finally leaves her GCPD base and returns to her home (DETECTIVE # 724).

Black Canary meets Jason Bard on a case in Rheelasia that leaves the private eye temporarily blinded (BIRDS OF PREY # 1-3). Elsewhere, Major van Lewton in the Pentagon begins a search for the mysterious hacker tapping into their computers, Barbara continues an online relationship with Bumblebeeb (# 1) and Oracle begins electronically siphoning Blockbuster's stolen funds for her own purposes (# 3).

Dick Grayson takes Barbara on an outing that is officially "NOT a date." When Dick suggests that they become a couple, Babs flatly rejects the offer (BIRDS OF PREY # 8).

As the government prepares to isolate Gotham from the rest of the country, Barbara announces her intention to stay. "I'm not letting ANYONE run me out of my hometown. I didn't let the Joker do it and I'm damn sure not going to let a bunch of BUREAUCRATS do it!" (BATMAN # 562).

IN THE PAST YEAR:

With Gotham now a "No Man's Land," Oracle puts together a network of operatives to keep tabs on opposing factions and offer assistance when possible. Elsewhere, with Batman missing for three months, a mysterious new Batgirl appears (BATMAN: NO MAN'S LAND # 1).

Barbara's section of Gotham is liberated from gang control by her father and the police as Batman returns to town and renews his ties with Oracle. The Dark Knight confronts the new Batgirl, refusing to sanction her actions but stopping short of asking her to cease and desist. "Just don't disgrace the symbol" (BATMAN # 563).

Barbara learns of the new Batgirl's existence and explodes in anger at Batman (DETECTIVE # 732).

Black Canary battles the Ravens while Oracle diverts Major van Lewton's forces in the direction of Blockbuster as they seek their mystery hacker (BIRDS OF PREY # 4-6).

Azrael finally meets Oracle, who apologizes for giving the wrong impression in her earlier suggestive remarks. The naive Azrael merely "thought you were being sisterly" (AZRAEL # 54).

In a fiery phone conversation, Oracle tells the new Batgirl that "I KNOW who you REALLY are" (BATMAN: LEGENDS OF THE DARK KNIGHT # 119).

One of Oracle's key operatives proves to be the daughter of assassin David Cain. Barbara's impression of the mute girl grows when she prevents Cain from murdering Commissioner Gordon (BATMAN # 567; DETECTIVE # 734).

Now revealed as the Huntress, Batgirl is confronted by Batman over her failures and gives up her new persona. Assuming the mantle of Batgirl in her place is Cain's daughter, operating with the complete approval of Barbara Gordon (BATMAN: LEGENDS OF THE DARK KNIGHT # 120).

Oracle and Black Canary are manipulated into freeing a war criminal in Koroscova (BIRDS OF PREY # 9-11).

The villain responsible for the Koroscovan debacle is revealed as Pharzoof, a Parademon who pulls the Canary and a train of metahuman criminals to Apokolips. Oracle calls in Power Girl for a rescue mission (BIRDS OF PREY # 12-14).

Recovering from his injuries sustained in his evacuation of Blackgate Prison (NIGHTWING # 37), Nightwing shares an embrace with Barbara at her apartment just as the Huntress and a band of rogue policemen rush in (# 38). Under siege, Oracle and Nightwing succeed in expelling the invaders (# 39).

The "No Man's Land" order is rescinded and a January 1 deadline is cited as Gotham's reopening (DETECTIVE # 740).

Sarah Essen is murdered by the Joker (DETECTIVE # 741) and a grieving Jim and Barbara bury her as the "No Man's Land" comes to an end (BATMAN: SHADOW OF THE BAT # 94).

RECENTLY:

Barbara finally has a face to face meeting with Bumblebeeb, who turns out to be Ted Kord, the former Blue Beetle. Meanwhile, Black Canary takes an apartment in her old hometown, Gotham (BIRDS OF PREY # 15).

The Joker's threat to launch a nuclear strike on Manhattan forces Oracle to call in Power Girl once more and reveal her existence to Major van Lewton (BIRDS OF PREY # 16-17).

Recovering from eye surgery, Jason Bard calls Barbara in the hope of rekindling old sparks but Babs offers only "a professional relationship" (BOP # 18).

Batman learns of Barbara's long-held letter that suggests that Jim Gordon is her biological father (BATMAN: GOTHAM KNIGHTS # 6).

On the heels of a date with Ted Kord, Babs is reunited with the still-blind Jason Bard, who belatedly learns that she is confined to a wheelchair (BOP # 19).

Oracle is forced to become a fugitive as Blockbuster begins hunting for her in earnest (NIGHTWING # 45). She takes refuge in a submarine at the Tricorner Yards Naval Station (BOP # 20), writes an encoded last will and testament to Batman (NIGHTWING # 46) and fights a desperate battle against Roland Desmond's forces. With a bullet in her thigh and in danger of drowning, Oracle is pulled from the water by Black Canary. As they meet for the first time and hug one another, Oracle insists that Dinah "call me Barbara." Now surrounded by the Blockbuster's army, Black Canary surrenders herself to the power broker, claiming to be Oracle. A concealed Barbara is rescued soon after by Nightwing, Robin and Alfred (BOP # 21).

Blockbuster sends Black Canary, Deathstroke, Lady Vic and Grimm to Gorilla City on a mission to retrieve a new heart from one of the hidden land's apes. With Oracle secretly feeding her information, Black Canary fakes computer skills. While Ted Kord backs up Barbara at home, Oracle dispatches Mace "Militia" Gardner to rescue the Canary from Gorilla City (BOP # 22-24).

Batman and his extended family defend themselves from attacks by David Atlee Redmun and his Bloodhawks while Oracle gathers evidence against the strikeforce and its leader (BATMAN: OUTLAWS # 1-3).

After the Huntress is accused of murder, Nightwing and Robin must convince the skeptical Oracle to work with them to prove her innocence (BATMAN.HUNTRESS: CRY FOR BLOOD # 2-3, 5).

Batman is voted out of the Justice League after the team discovers that he'd been keeping files on how to defeat them. Now paranoid about all of Batman's key associates, the League stops calling on Oracle and a furious Barbara berates the Dark Knight (JLA SECRET FILES # 3).

Batman pays a visit to Oracle to look at her "new toys" (NIGHTWING # 47).

Barbara cautions Batgirl against fighting Lady Shiva (BATGIRL # 7).

Dick and Barbara share an embrace while Nightwing is in the midst of an investigation (NIGHTWING 80-PAGE GIANT # 1).

Via the Beetle's bug, Ted and Barbara share a ride in the skies of Gotham and mutually decide not to take their relationship beyond friendship (BOP # 25).

A series of attacks on disabled Gothamites becomes a point of concern for Oracle, who finally realizes that the attacker has a grudge against people who won civil suits. She draws him into the open by pretending to file a lawsuit against Gotham for negligence in her shooting (BATMAN: GOTHAM KNIGHTS # 12).

Jim Gordon is shot on his birthday (BATMAN # 587) and Oracle summons Azrael, Batgirl, Nightwing and Robin to find the gunman (ROBIN # 86; BOP # 27; CATWOMAN # 90). Babs positively identifies the owner of the gun just as her father regains consciousness (NIGHTWING # 53).

John "Mikishawm" Wells, the pride of Batavia, Iowa, is a lifelong comics fan, working his way forward from Disneys in 1969 to newspaper strips in 1973 to SHAZAM! and the rest of the DC Universe in 1974. During the 1980s, he began compiling a lists of DC character appearances, a massive database that he's tapped into when writing articles for publications such as the DC Index series, Amazing Heroes, The Comics Buyer’s Guide, Comic Effect, Comic Book Marketplace, It’s A Fanzine, The O‘Neil Observer and, of course, Fanzing. He is Kurt Busiek's unofficial reference guide, as the keen-eyed may have noticed in Power Company #2.

 
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