Too Many Long Boxes!

End of Summer

The Reign of Terra-Man

by John Wells

On a steamy summer day in 1888 Arizona, the editor of the Cripple Creek Courier had a decision to make. In the end Rufus Matlock decided to kill the story, explaining to his daughter Gail that he didn't want to risk having "our newspaper become the laughingstock of the whole world. No, daughter. Even if the people of Cripple Creek won't ever forget what they saw ... the rest of the world will never hear about it."

It had all begun one day earlier with Sheriff Cooper's capture of bank robber Jess Manning. The outlaw had been escorted to a jail cell but Cooper had reckoned without Manning's offspring. Young Toby had turned ten years old only months earlier on February 25 but he was already a chip off the old block, stealing a gun and slipping it to his Pa during the night. "Yore gonna be a first-class outlaw someday, son," his proud father told him as they rode off on horseback. "I feel it in muh bones."

Back in Cripple Creek, the news of Manning's escape had been eclipsed by reports of an unidentified flying object and the sight of a flying young reporter named Clark Kent who'd just saved Rufus Matlock from being trampled by a horse. Taking refuge in the sky, the 20th Century hero known as Superboy wondered how his plan had gone so wrong. After a series of potentially fatal blunders in his own time period, the Boy of Steel had exiled himself to the past, convinced that his inability to change history would act as a failsafe.

Oblivious to all this, a pair of stagecoach drivers were riding towards town when they stopped to pick up a little boy that they assumed had been lost in the desert. Pulling a pistol from behind his back, Toby Manning demanded, "Throw down the strongbox, gents -- pronto -- or I'll plug both of ya fulla lead!" With the box alongside him, Toby fired his gun into the air and "sent the frightened horses sprinting away."

"It sure does a man good to see his only kin followin' in his father's footsteps," Jess told him.

"It was easy, Pa. I looked them men square in the eye, like yuh told me."

"Now thet yuh've got your first hold-up under yore belt, Toby, it won't be long 'fore Jess Manning and son is the most famous -- an' best -- outlaw team in the west."

Jess' satisfaction proved short-lived as a shadow fell over the outlaws and the gold coins they'd just stolen began rising into the air toward a large metallic disk. Aboard the craft was an blue-fleshed, pointy-eared extraterrestrial being with a green mohawk whose reptilian qualities extended to his eyes and the scales on his skin. He'd been forced to make an emergency landing on Earth to find pymbaxr ("common shale to us") that would recharge his proto-engine and took advantage of the visit to indulge his passion for galactic currency samples. In his own way, the Collector was as much an outlaw as the Mannings, "breaking the laws of many planets to amass his 'collection.'"

Jess Manning had no intention of letting anyone take away his gold and began firing his pistol as Toby cheered, "Attaway, Pa! Yuh winged him!" The Collector was outraged and fired back via a star-like energy unit he wore as a necklace. Horrified, the alien realized he'd sent a lethal "overdose of solar-power" rather than the intended stun force. Involuntarily, the alien and Manning were joined by "the death-link ... an extraordinary power which enabled the spaceman to telepathically scan the mind of a fatally stricken person in his last moments of life." In a heartbeat, the space-bandit learned of Jess' hopes and dreams for Toby. The dying Jess could do no more than scrawl a small circle in the sand around a bullet.

The Collector "was not a killer by nature" and, looking at the devastated Toby, silently promised to "take his father's place ... adopt the orphan and make him my apprentice ... teach him the super-skills ... arm him with my ultra-weapons. But -- I cannot expect the yoith to accept me, knowing I killed his father. With this hypnotic grid, I'll erase that incident from his memory ... substitute a story of my own." Blaming the incident on Sheriff Cooper, the Collector took his protege aboard.

Before his departure, the space-bandit went on a test run in Cripple Creek "to determine whether my proto-cannon has been properly charged." The arrival of Superboy saved the town from damage and, for good measure, the Boy of Steel tossed the flying disk back into outer space. Watching as it hurtled away, Superboy decided that the invader had "taught me a valuable lesson I could benefit from in my own time. Even though there will always be a minimal chance my super-powers will backfire in a crisis, the risk must be weighed against the maximum benefits to be gained. So ... 20th Century -- here comes Superboy back to stay -- for good!"

Deep in space, the Collector put his hand on Toby Manning's shoulder and proclaimed that "when you reach manhood, I predict you will become an even greater interstellar outlaw than I. You will be the offspring I never had." The alien quickly set about augmenting his adoptive son's human body for the rigors of space, implanting "a miniature oxygenator-thermostat" in his right lung that would "enable (him) to breathe and be comfortable in the vacuum of space and on any unearthly planet."

The Collector "never forgot his adoptive apprentice was still deeply ingrained with the culture of Earth's Old West," dressing him in clothes of the period that eventually grew to include his trademark yellow shirt, green cape and brown pants and hat. When he was old enough, the young man also grew a thick mustache. Early on, the bandit trained him in the use of an energi-lasso, which Toby promptly used to capture a young Arguvian Space-Steed, a winged white horse that was as comfortable in the vacuum of space as Toby. "By the time it is a full-grown stallion," the space-bandit said of the newly-christened Nova, "the boy will be a man -- a man of Earth ... Terra-Man."

Terra-Man eventually put together an impressive arsenal thematically tied to the old west. His "chewing tobacco" created sophisticated illusions (Superman # 249) and seemed to have bestowed a degree of telekinesis on him (# 259 and Action # 469). His cigars, when exhaled, gave off smoke that strangled their victim (# 249) and, when inhaled, transformed Toby into a smoky wraith (# 259). His gun fired bullets that enlarged into missile shells (# 249), released atomic energy when they struck their target (# 250) or gave off sonic waves (Action # 468) . Also in his possession was a power-amplification glove (Superman # 250), parasitic tumbleweeds (Action # 511, 557) and strangulation devices including "a capsule of concentrated gravita-gold" concealed in his tooth that smothered its victim in a gold aura (# 250) and an enlarging bandana (Action # 426).

"By a paradox of space-travel, time slows down while traveling near the speed of light," a caption explained. "Thus, while Toby has aged 20 years in two decades of space-flight -- 100 years have gone by on Earth." Occasionally monitoring events on his home planet, Toby had caught a glimpse of Superman and may have recognized the stranger who sent him and the Collector hurtling from Earth. Someday, that insult would have to be dealt with.

There was a greater debt to be paid first, though, one that came due after Toby finally completed his first solo theft on behalf of the Collector. The space-bandit was effusive in his praise and Toby observed that "my real father had similar words ... long ago, back on Earth ... the day you killed him!" Drawing his gun in an instant, Terra-Man fired a lethal atomic bullet into the Collector.

Toby admitted to the dying alien that his memories had been erased but his father's dying message had resonated in his mind. "At first I was too young to understand its meaning. Not until I grew older did I realize that my father had scrawled a rough diagram of your ship -- with a bullet, the symbol of death -- planted into it. He was naming his killer for me. I bided my time ... waited till you taught me everything you knew. All these years, you never suspected you were training your own murderer!"

With the Collector's death, Toby was free to return "to my own world ... to carry on as Pa wanted me to. And my first job will be to destroy the leading symbol of law and justice on Earth ... Superman" (1972's Superman # 249, by Cary Bates, Dick Dillin and Neal Adams, with supplementary material from 1981's New Adventures of Superboy # 23, by Bates, Kurt Schaffenberger and Dave Hunt).

True to his word, Terra-Man struck at Earth, fabricating an old-style stagecoach robbery in the streets of Metropolis to call out Superman. A fireworks display spelled out his intention: "Earth isn't big enough for the two of us, Superman! By sundown tomorrow you will be dead!"

The Man of Steel was having troubles of his own, thanks to a recurring Kryptonian condition that caused his powers to backfire. Refusing to shirk his responsibility, Superman agreed to the challenge, evading each of Terra's attacks in circuitous methods to compensate for his malfunctioning abilities. The Man of Steel finally managed to jam his foe's gun barrel and knock him out but he didn't have a clue as to the villain's origins (Superman # 249, by Bates, Curt Swan and Murphy Anderson).

Terra-Man had anticipated defeat and spent a short period of time in prison as a means of experiencing what his father had in the 19th Century. Appalled by the conditions, Toby concluded that "now that I've seen prison life, I swear never to let anyone put me behind bars again." With that, he whistled for Nova and the steed beat its wings until it sucked the wall out of its master's cell. After fending off an attack by Superman, they took took refuge in the Collector's cloaked spacecraft, in orbit above Earth.

Tapping into the space vessel's super-scientific arsenal, Terra-Man fashioned a branding iron that he used to put his stamp on his foe's forehead. "It's called hyper-aging, Superman. Every time you use a super-power, you'll grow older ... at a super-fast rate." During their clash, however, Superman had spotted a weakness of Terra, noting that he had momentarily had trouble breathing. Discovering the oxygen unit that had been implanted long ago, the Man of Steel learned that a Metropolis man named John P. Alstrom, through unusual circumstances,. was exhaling a gas that coincidentally clogged the device. While Superman reversed the hyper-aging effect by refusing to use his powers, John Alstrom happened to come into close proximity with Terra, weakening him long enough for the Man of Steel to capture him (Superman # 250, by Bates, Swan and Anderson).

Bates and editor Julius Schwartz clearly had high hopes for Terra-Man, featuring him in consecutive issues of Superman and even taking the unusual step of featuring his origin in a separate solo story -- inked by 1970s fan-favorite Neal Adams, no less. Reaction was mixed, though, with one reader pointing out in issue # 254's letter column that the whole concept reminded him of the Golden Age's Shining Knight, also a man out of time with a winged white horse. In response, E. Nelson Bridwell argued, "That's like saying that because Superman is from another planet, he's the same as the octopoid Martians in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds," pointing out that "Sir Justin was a Knight of the Round Table who was frozen in a glacier for over 1,500 years, while Toby Manning was a Western outlaw's son raised on another world."

Still, the villain's next two escapades (1972's Superman # 259 and 1973's Action # 426, both by Bates, Swan and Anderson) came without cover appearances. In the former, Terra-Man escaped prison thanks to a special "TM" brand on his arm that enabled him to mentally transport the entire facility -- minus his bunk -- to the desert. Taking advantage of the Man of Steel's current liability, a Captain Marvel-esque link with a young boy and his lynx, Terra hoped to finally get the upper hand. Instead, the Man of Steel traced the kidnapped boy to the Collector's invisible spacecraft and used its technology to resolve his problem.

In Action # 426, Toby abandoned his usual Western parlance to manipulate a group of anti-space fanatics, who viewed Earth's expeditions to the Moon as unnatural. With their help, he gathered several moon rocks and and encouraged the Lunatics to destroy them, unwittingly arming a super-bomb that Superman's touch would trigger. Terra-Man's uncharacteristically docile surrender tipped off the Man of Steel that something was amiss and he disposed of the bomb before it could explode.

Terra-Man followed up with an elaborate plot designed to stage his conflict with Superman in a setting that gave him something of a home advantage -- a scientifically recreated western town populated by several of the Man of Steel's closest friends. He demanded that Superman participate in a series of gun duels for the life of those mesmerized friends, with each of his bullets keyed to the heartbeat of one of them. Incredibly, Terra had actually successfully captured -- and briefly brainwashed -- Superman at the beginning of the affair, not realizing that Clark Kent was his alter-ego. The Man of Steel secretly used heat-vision to alter the bullets suffiently to slow down (rather than stop) the hearts of his friends. When it was Clark Kent's turn to "die," Superman awakened the corpses, startling Terra long enough for Clark to covertly defeat him (1974's Superman # 278, by Bates, Swan and Bob Oksner).

The hostage angle remained an attractive one to Terra-Man and he again forced Superman to do his bidding in late 1976 by concealing deadly cosmomite bombs throughout Metropolis. Using technology that Earth's filmmakers wouldn't perfect for years, Terra-Man inserted himself into old movies and pre-empted TV broadcasts in an elaborate publicity campaign to convince the country "to watch my brand-spankin' new TV show ... tomorrow night at nine, right here on WGBS-TV!" Despite WGBS' best efforts, "The Adventures of Terra-Man" were indeed broadcast live with special guest-star Superman, who appeared to have disarmed and captured the rogue in the cliffhanger ending (Action # 468).

Off camera, the Man of Steel let Terra go rather than risk the detonation of the bombs -- and the incident was caught on film by an amateur photographer, unaware that Superman was acting under duress. Despite the crushing decline in public confidence, the Last Son of Krypton resumed his role in Terra-Man's TV series -- and seemed to pay for it with his life at the end of the second episode (Action # 469).

The entire scheme had been a ploy designed by Terra-Man to transform Superman into his duplicate. Rising from his grave in the guise of his enemy, the Man of Steel was forced to defend himself from attacks by Green Lantern and the Flash as he attempted to understand the purpose behind his metamorphosis. Within hours, "Terra Man" had the answers he was seeking -- including the secret of the Western bandit's super-science.

A strangely familiar flying disk teleported "Terra" aboard and he found himself confronted by a gun-wielding alien. "Feigning ignorance will do you no good, murderer! You pretend not to recognize my blue skin or my hooded brow ? Could you so easily forget the race of the space-pirate who raised you -- the mentor who taught you the ultra-technology that powers your weapons -- the one you so brutally shot down after he passed on all his knowledge -- the man who is -- my brother!" If ever there a moment for Superman to gasp, "Great Scott," this was it!

The Collector's brother didn't want Terra-Man to die quickly, however. Teleporting his captive to freedom, he vowed to "hunt you down like a savage beast ... thrill to the chase ... and the kill!" As the entire city of Metropolis watched, Superman (yep, Superman) flew onto the scene, engaging the alien in combat and nearly bringing him to justice. At the climactic moment, both Superman and the alien were confronted in the sky by Terra-Man, who announced that "I'm gonna give you both a six-gun ticket 'cross the Great Divide!"

Watching the villain's moment of triumph, a policeman suddenly went berserk, shrieking, "Nobody's gonna steal my reputation -- nobody!" Transforming himself into the real Terra-Man, he rocketed into the sky only to be decked by his double. It seems that Superman had revealed his identity crisis to Green Lantern and the Flash, who drafted Superman actor Gregory Reed to stand in for the Man of Steel while they used their powers to create the illusion of his super-powers. Pointing his finger at Terra-Man, the still-altered Superman snarled, "And now, 'pardner' -- you've got three seconds to change me back into Superman -- or I'll dump you in the same space-prison with that alien!" A caption added that "it takes only two seconds for the jittery Terra-Man, using his ultra-technology to comply" (Action # 470, by Bates, Swan and Tex Blaisdell).

Late in 1979, word reached Terra-Man that famed 19th Century outlaw Butch Cassidy had been discovered alive, supposedly having been in suspended animation since 1909. Anxious to meet a kindred spirit, Toby rushed to Gotham City, where Butch -- and his partner, the Penguin -- were making the rounds on the talk-show circuit. He arrived just in time to witness Batman dismissing the claims ("I've read it before ... in a comic strip!") and promptly lassoed the Dark Knight. Terra was a bit disgruntled to learn that Butch was a fake but he agreed to work with the Penguin. Through a combination of Terra-Man's atomic bullets and the Penguin's evidently-Kryptonite-tinged hypnotic umbrella, they even managed to briefly convince Superman that he was the Sundance Kid. "Butch's" insistence that "he ain't Sundance" gave Superman the time he needed to shake off the effect and shoot the guns off of Terra's holster (World's Finest # 261, by Denny O'Neil, Rich Buckler and Dick Giordano).

In 1982, Terra-Man decided to pool his own super-science with that of Lex Luthor's. They'd met previously, once during a mass escape orchestrated by Mister Xavier (1976's Superman # 299) and again when Luthor had faked a reformation 1980's Action # 511) but this was the first time they'd actually worked together (Superman Spectacular # 1, by Bob Rozakis & Paul Kupperberg, Adrian Gonzales and Vince Colletta).

Terra had learned that Kryptonite could kill Superman and, using a sensor-device on his six-gun, he'd found a nugget in deep space. Informing Luthor of his discovery, he suggested they form an alliance to lure their joint enemy into a deathtrap. With first hand knowledge of Lex's duplicitous nature (Action # 511), Terra announced that he would hold onto the Kryptonite. The rock had a definite effect on the Man of Steel but not the one that his enemies had intended -- he split into two entities, Superman-Red and Superman-Blue.

Luthor was horrified, cursing that "I didn't count on your showing up with a hunk of faulty green Kryptonite!"

"It was Kryptonite awright -- my six-gun don't make mistakes. But this heah rock was red ..."

"Red!?!" Yep, ignorant of the permutations of Kryptonite, Terra-Man had turned up Red K, which affected the Man of Steel in a different manner each time he encountered it but wasn't lethal.

Hoping to level the playing field, Luthor tore a rift in the dimensional fabric of space, allowing magic from a parallel world to leak through and enhance his and Terra-Man's own strengths. Fortuitously, the dimensional tear corrected itself almost simultaneously with the pair of Supermen merging into a single being once more. Terra-Man and Luthor were soon returned to custody.

The adventure inspired Terra-Man to add "a warp-opening device" to Nova and the flying horse teleported his master (rendered unconscious by Superman) to what the steed imagined was a safe port. Instead, Terra and Nova found themselves in a chaotic dimension that proved to be a bridge to a parallel Earth. This world, undoubtedly the one that Luthor had tapped into earlier, was governed by magic and its Terra-Man fired energy from his index finger while astride his flying (but non-winged) horse. The pair of Terra-Men conspired to bring Superman to the alternate Earth, convinced that their mastery of its magic would give them the upper hand. Thanks to his Justice league comrade Zatanna, Superman wasn't quite a novice and soon discovered that he could fight back by using the sort of backwards spells that she and her father had perfected (1982's Superman # 377, by Kupperberg, Swan and Hunt).

Superman's subsequent encounters were relatively minor ones. In 1980's Superman: Terra-Man's Skyway Robbery, a Super Sugar Crisp mini-comic (art by Gonzales and Colletta), Terra finally used green Kryptonite (concealed in a cactus bomb) but had no more success than he did with the Red. 1984's Action # 557 (by Kupperberg, Swan and Hunt) played up Terra's growing frustration with his inability to defeat Superman and revealed that he'd created an entire town of automatons (including the Big Red S) so that he could actually pretend to kill him. Terra-Man made his final bow in 1986's DC Comics Presents # 96 (by Dan Miskin & Gary Cohn, Joe Staton and Kurt Schaffenberger), wherein relatively new hero Blue Devil was drafted into defending Metropolis against Terra-Man while the Man of Steel took care of a related threat in outer space. As he'd done once before (Action # 511), Terra surrounded himself with a gang of aliens but the greater numbers weren't enough to prevent defeat.

By this point, the Superman series had fallen into disfavor with many fans, who regarded villains like Terra-Man as rather silly characters, unworthy of someone as powerful as the Last Son of Krypton. Paul Kupperberg had attempted to defend the character in Superman # 377, noting that "behind all that range-bum lingo, Terra-Man's a product of a super-scientific alien culture" and easy to underestimate. Still, the character had become a symbol of the perceived flaws in the series and he was one of the many "barnacles" that John Byrne planned to remove in his 1986 revamp of the series.

In comics, though, no one seems to go away forever and Terra-Man returned (sort of) in 1990's Superman # 46 (by Jerry Ordway, Dan Jurgens and Dennis Janke). This time, Tobias Manning was a present-day environmentalist with the power to enforce his agenda. Beneath his long, gray Western-style coat, he wore padded, technologically-laced gray body armor that gave him great strength and enabled him to produce force blasts and generate tornadoes via a control pad on his left shoulder. At a showcase for a proposed Biosphere, Manning confronted the creator of the project, describing him as someone who "wants you to buy your safety from a future that your industries and power plants're helping to create." Superman fought Manning and his robotic Terra-Men (dressed like Western bandits) but the marauder disappeared into his teleportational cyclone.

Terra-Man's next outing, at "the Hell's Gate Landfill not far from Metropolis" was no less confrontational despite Manning's claim to have a benevolent motive. He'd "detected traces of radioactivity and some hazardous waste" at the site and demanded that the property be cleared so that he could use his technology to de-toxify the land. Security guards and Lexcorp scientists refused to leave and, as the ground began to shake and swirl, several were sucked under. Thanks to Superman's efforts, nearly all of the men were rescued -- all save for a scientist nicknamed "Lucky." Tobias Manning was now wanted for murder.

Because of Manning's southern drawl and "cowboy look," Lois Lane and Clark Kent had initially overlooked Terra-Man's connection to the East Coast. Research revealed that he "built the Lookout Peak chemical plant with four others ... Manning was the sole partner to be indicted for the chemical spills from their factory ten years ago. The town was so contaminated with dioxins that the Environmental Protection Agency had to step in. This other story details the EPA investigation that led to fines and prison time for Manning alone. His partners, however, all died while Toby was in jail."

"Gee," said Lois, "Is that suspicious, or what ?" Lois immediately began to suspect that Manning might be holed up at Lookout Peak and, without her fiance's knowledge, she borrowed a containment suit and entered the town. Superman was close behind and the couple soon learned that Terra-Man was indeed in the area.

Manning argued that he'd been partially responsible for poisoning Lookout Peak and "I must atone for it." His procedure would convert the land into "inert materials -- dirt is once again just dirt." He rejected Superman's suggestion that the operation be turned over to the government, insisting that "they'll study my process for years before implementing. And they've got a political agenda to serve -- and red tape to cut through. And from the vest, pardner, we don't have that long to wait."

Presented with evidence that the procedure was effective, the Man of Steel agreed to a truce. He would help Terra-Man implement an airborne detoxification of Lookout Peak in exchange for Lois' safe passage and Manning's surrender. True to his word, Toby didn't resist arrest and requested, "Treat me square, Miss Lane -- I'm not a bad guy."

For their part, Superman offered to have S.T.A.R. Labs monitor the once- contaminated land. Lois observed that "his trial alone should help raise public awareness of the toxic waste problem. Maybe there's still a chance for all of the other places like Lookout Peak. Heck, maybe there's eeven a chance for Lookout Peak" (Superman # 52, by Ordway, Kerry Gammill and Janke).

Alerted by a series of eco-terrorist acts in 1994 (Metropolis S.C.U. # 1), Manning escaped from prison (# 2) and turned himself over to the Metropolis Special Crimes Unit with the offer of information on the mastermind. "If the government will place a moratorium on all acts of pollution, all fossil fuel consumption, I'll tell you what you want to know." Manning's behavior only cemented the S.C.U.'s belief that Terra-Man was the person responsible and he was sent to a holding cell.

Manning nearly escaped again only to have his commandeered helicopter brought to ground by Superman. Brought in for questioning again, Terra-Man finally divulged what he suspected. "I just want y'all to know that I could care less about people. I'm only telling you this because I don't want him to hurt the animals."

The eco-terrorist was "the only true genius I've ever known. Dr. Noah Brazil. He was my professor in graduate school. I learned everything I know about ecology from him. He loves the Earth and he hates what's happening to it. He loved American Indian culture -- he'd talk about how they used to live as one with the Earth. He used to draw a symbol. It meant a lot to him. Chamchaga."

"He told me legends and the like. About what would happen to the world if we didn't straighten up and fly right. He told me once that he believed science would be the death of the planet. He trusted me, but he said that the other scientists were hopeless. Then one day, he told me about his crazy plan to save the planet."

"We had a falling out when I told him I'd taken a job with an oil company. He said I was worse than the rest of them. He was right, a'course. I never saw him again."

Brazil had been setting fires and "filling the atmosphere with soot. Ya know, carbon. Lightning turns the carbon into fullerenes. Then, when there's enough fullerenes up there, he'll send balloons carrying a nerve agent into the air." He was, in effect, creating the legend of Chamchaga, in which "the bird wraps a dark sheath around the Earth, smothering everything on it so the Earth can begin again" (# 3).

Still in custody, Manning accompanied the S.C.U. to Arizona, where they, U.S. Marshals and local authorities joined forces to flush out Doctor Brazil. The S.C.U. managed to prevent his toxic payload from rising into the sky and the nerve gas began to spread through Brazil's biosphere. Grabbing a gas mask, Manning rushed into the facility to rescue his beloved mentor but he was too late. Doctor Noah Brazil was dead (# 4, by Cindy Goff, Pete Krause and Jose Marzan, Jr.).

Late in 1995, Terra-Man was among those invited to a gathering of the demon Neron, who offered everyone in attendance their most fervent desire. For Manning, the fulfillment of his environmental goals wasn't worth the price of his soul (Underworld Unleashed # 1). Today, he continues to serve out his sentence at Burnley Federal Penitentiary in Hazelwood Texas.

John "Mikishawm" Wells, the pride of Batavia, Iowa, is a lifelong comics fan, working his way forward from Disneys in 1969 to newspaper strips in 1973 to SHAZAM! and the rest of the DC Universe in 1974. During the 1980s, he began compiling a lists of DC character appearances, a massive database that he's tapped into when writing articles for publications such as the DC Index series, Amazing Heroes, The Comics Buyer’s Guide, Comic Effect, Comic Book Marketplace, It’s A Fanzine, The O‘Neil Observer and, of course, Fanzing. He is Kurt Busiek's unofficial reference guide, as the keen-eyed may have noticed in Power Company #2.

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